Long term planning, has often been regarded as an appropriate response to the said complexity and unpredictability. However, decision making based on this approach does not necessarily lead to anticipate possible outcomes, but rather to substantiate them more appropriately.
Many organizations use tools to predict the consequences of the plans, based on simplistic hypothesis that might lead to risky conclusions. In fact, usually this type of tools do not include interdependencies between the relevant variables, do not consider delays and usually leave out many non-linear relationships.
There is still ample and convenient space for including instruments (models or methodologies) that facilitate a deep planning analysis, policies design and assessments of possible future evolutions of systems subject to the public administration in question, either these are Municipalities, Departments or Central Government; as well as many of those key sectors for economy, society and environment. In this manner, it can tend to use Researching in modeling for: a) policy against crime, b) planning, education and policy and regulation, c) technology and development policy, d) environmental policy, e) employment policy, f) policy in R+D+i+E (research, development, innovation and enterprising), g) energy planning, policy and regulation, h) development, national, regional or municipal plans, amongst others.